Ergonomics 101 (Comfort or Efficiency?) Definitions * UFF Commentary * Neoliberalism * History of Money * Life Over Money?! Greed (Social Experiment) * When Money Isn’t Real * Money Quotes, Humour & Music * Kids Decide Between Helping the Homeless or Ice Cream


What do most people know about ergonomics other than comfortable chairs that are good for your posture and ergonomic keyboards that help minimize wrist stress?

Surprisingly, here's a basic definition from an internet search -


er·go·nom·ics [ˌərɡəˈnämiks]


the study of people's efficiency in their working environment.


Is that what ergonomic chairs in the office are all about? Improving work efficiencies?

Economic Ergonomics?

What about the human element (comfort)?

Humane Ergonomics?

Consider the below Wikipedia entry.


Human Factors and Ergonomics:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, and enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest.[1]

The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities. The two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially synonymous.[2][3][4]

The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows:[5]

Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

See Wikipedia site for detailed information on ergonomics, specifically: Etymology, Domains of Specialization, Physical, Cognitive and Organizational Ergonomics, History of the Field, Methods, Footnotes, References and more...


UFF Commentary continued:

Ergonomic Performance in the workplace are metrics that help determine efficiencies, productivity, ultimately profitability.

How strange it is that Monetary Ergonomics has yet to be explored as a topic of research and/or discussion at a corporate (including non profit and charity) and/or academic level.

"Monetary Ergonomics". What does it mean? How can we define?

Example: Monetary Ergonomics is the application of monetary resources in the interest of humane system performance in service to ecological integrity.

Make sense? Compared to what?

Capitalism and its prime motivator, monetary profit (the profit imperative), according to protagonists, optimizes human well being and overall systems performance.

Are capitalists taking on climate change, or is denial the order of the day? After all, planet Earth has experienced climate cycles in the past. Is humanity the prime reason for recent observations? What about volcanoes spewing ash and lava, earthquakes shattering the very foundation of the planet, the Sun burning, projecting energy until when?...

It's only a matter of time before we all burn along with the planet although that'll take a billion years or so to determine.

Meanwhile, climate chaos encroaches. How much are we as humans contributing to climate change and what will our contribution be regarding best results overall now that we know what we know, assuming we are that critical to life as we know it.

What about pollution, crime, inequality, poverty?

Is capitalism contributing to humane global solutions or taking advantage of existing social/political/economic systems and purposefully bringing us closer to Dystopia in a bold expression of survival of the monetary?

No need to answer that question.

If discussion is of advantage, proceed...


Let's continue with specific realities that shed light on how capitalism and the monetary profit imperative have influenced our "market value" as human beings:

Who's more important to the future of humanity?

One who cares for elders in a meaningful way such as a PSW (Personal Support Worker), or

One who can run fast, throw a ball real good, win games, make substantial contributions to our community both as a role model for success and as a philanthropist*.

* tax exemptions included (as in write offs so as to reduce personal income tax).

One can say both individuals are valuable in their own way. No disrespect for professional athletes taking advantage of market economics, however -

PSW's may get close to minimum wage for tending to frail, at times incontinent elders in a timely, dignified, compassionate manner. Sorry about the poverty wages, PSW's. Sure hope you don't take it out on some of our most vulnerable citizens! Yet the sad truth is s**t happens in understaffed retirement communities that are based on the profit imperative.

Meanwhile, earlier this year, a quarterback for an NFL team negotiated through his agent a four year contract extension worth over 130 million dollars. Nice pass! Go Team! And this is just one example of how generous we can be to those who excel at sports, never mind other lucrative careers wherein the lottery of life pays out big time in wealth well beyond the needs of any individual.

What would be fair in a world of monetary ergonomic integrity?

Consider the following results of a recent survey that asked Canadians how much money (salary) it would take to meet their needs for a comfortable lifestyle.

Courtesy of:
11/03/2018 18:45 EDT | Updated 11/04/2018 13:34 EST

Canadians Believe The Average Salary They Need For 'Comfort' Is $250,000
TFW your ideal salary is five times the national median income.

By Liz Haq

Would a quarter of $1 million a year solve all of your financial woes?

Almost 1,500 Canadians were asked how much individual pre-tax income would make them feel "financially comfortable" in a survey by financial services firm Edward Jones. The verdict came in at a cool $250,000.

But why stop there? Being comfortable is great, but it's certainly not going to buy you that fancy watch you've been eyeing or get you to Rome anytime soon. When asked how much they'd need to achieve the lifestyle they "truly desire," most participants added another $50,000 to that total.

While both figures would be a far cry from Canada's median after-tax income of $56,000, the survey found that people always felt they earned less than they desired, regardless of which end of the earning scale they were on.

"The more people earn, the more they believe they need," Patrick French, principal of solutions tools and consulting with Edward Jones, told HuffPost Canada on Wednesday. "That's because as salary increases, so does expenditure."

The data was broken down by region: Albertans had the grandest financial aspirations, requiring almost $350,000 to feel comfortable. The phenomenon could be attributed to prolonged economic hardship and mounting debt in the province, French surmised. Manitoba and Saskatchewan needed the least, at about $157,000.

Older Canadians require the most

Figures also differed across generations: Canadians aged 55 to 64 had the most extravagant desired salary at a whopping $398,347. The report said that "this age group may be saddled with unwanted financial responsibilities."
French said those lofty ambitions can be partially attributed to failing to properly plan for retirement. Another financial burden could include helping children and grandchildren pay for homes in expensive real estate markets across the country.


To what extent can the current monetary system deliver adequate income across the board based on North American and/or European standards?



Let's scope ergonomics out further:

What about war and military expenditures overall, globally.

That's trillions of dollars spent on defence, destruction and pain, suffering, death. Paid for with our tax dollars. All in the interest of freedom, democracy?

Or is it possibly political fascism hiding behind neoliberalism?

Consider the following...

NOTE: UFF Commentary continues after the below Wikipedia entry on Neoliberalism.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism[1] refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.[2]:7 Those ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade[3] and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society.[11] These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980.[12][13]

English-speakers have used the term "neoliberalism" since the start of the 20th century with different meanings,[14] but it became more prevalent in its current meaning in the 1970s and 1980s, used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences[15][16] as well as by critics.[17][18] Modern advocates of free market policies avoid the term "neoliberal"[19] and some scholars have described the term as meaning different things to different people[20][21] as neoliberalism "mutated" into geopolitically distinct hybrids as it travelled around the world.[4] As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy.[22]

The definition and usage of the term have changed over time.[5] As an economic philosophy, neoliberalism emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s as they attempted to trace a so-called "third" or "middle" way between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning.[23]:14–15 The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which neoliberals mostly blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term "neoliberal" tended to refer to theories which diverged from the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism and which promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy.

In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" heavily declined. When the term re-appeared in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet's economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted. It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it also had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of Mont Pelerin Society economists Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman and James M. Buchanan, along with politicians and policy-makers such as Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Alan Greenspan.[5][24] Once the new meaning of neoliberalism became established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused into the English-language study of political economy.[5] By 1994, with the passage of NAFTA and with the Zapatistas' reaction to this development in Chiapas, the term entered global circulation.[4] Scholarship on the phenomenon of neoliberalism has been growing over the last couple of decades.[16] The impact of the global 2008–2009 crisis has also given rise to new scholarship that criticizes neoliberalism and seeks policy alternatives.[25]

Please see Wikipedia site for extensive details on Neoliberalism Origins, Early History, Traditions, etc.


Now, consider the following notes from a CBC Ideas radio presentation:

Is Neoliberalism Destroying The World?

CBC Radio · September 26, 2018

Deregulation. Infinite growth. Self-correcting markets. All are hallmarks of neoliberal thinking. But they're more than just assumptions about the economy. They undergird much of the most influential thinking about governance right now, and dominate political and economic thinking everywhere. The results, according to some, have been disastrous. Investigative journalist Bruce Livesey asks four experts about the rise and rule of neoliberal thought, and what it may mean for societies around the world.

"The Trump administration is largely populated by people from the neoliberal thought collective and they are busily carrying out things that they wanted to do for years."
- Philip Mirowski

The term "neoliberalism" is likely more used than understood. But if at its heart it's the ideology that markets know better than humans, then its ascension into virtually every sector of society is nearly complete. At least that's the view of economic historian, Philip Mirowski at the University of Notre Dame. For him, the presidency of Donald Trump represents textbook neoliberalism: privatizing education and health care, gutting the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as health and safety, and food safety laws.

"People don't pay any attention to this because they're so fascinated by the buffoonery of Trump himself," Mirowsky says. "The Trump administration is largely populated by people from the neoliberal thought collective and they are busily carrying out things that they wanted to do for years."

Trump's government is simply the visible part of the ideological iceberg that is neoliberalism. Brexit, the rise of extreme right-wing nationalism and anti-globalization, the Euro crisis, austerity, consumer debt and economic anxiety — these are all arguably byproducts of neoliberalism's ideology.

From Ideas -
You hear the term everywhere. But what exactly is neoliberalism?

Listen to Philip Mirowski, Anat R. Admati, Sam Gindin, Yanis Varoufakis and Bruce Livesey on neoliberalism by visiting the CBC Radio site and accessing the Ideas program in full.


How comfortable or discomforted should we be with the concept and realities of neoliberalism?



UFF Commentary continues...

Most underpaid people labour longer hours than recommended by health specialists so as to support families, pay the bills, just to get by. Is that ergonomically sound in the long run? Market economics deliver the lottery of life to the few. Monetary ergonomics for the few, the gifted.

Is that really fair and just, all things considered?


WHAT IF we educate children on the importance of ergonomics in terms of:

Income (Monetary Ergonomics)

Emotions (Emotional Economics)

Community (Social Economics)

Religion (Spiritual Economics)

And WHAT IF we challenge youth through education methodologies to explore BEST ERGONOMIC PRACTICES in the interest of the well being of humanity in general?

Then, WHAT IF we devote our energies and economics to make children's dreams come true?

Pie in the sky? Pipe dream? Utopian ergonomic fantasy?

What price will our children pay for the ongoing folly of the profit imperative?

Consider the following before attempting to answer the above questions:


History of Money
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange. Money is any clearly identifiable object of value that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts within a market, or which is legal tender within a country. While money is always a medium of exchange, not all mediums of exchange are money in the numismatic sense.

Significant evidence establishes many things were bartered in ancient markets that could be described as a medium of exchange. These included livestock and grain – things directly useful in themselves – but also merely attractive items such as cowrie shells or beads were exchanged for more useful commodities. However, such exchanges would be better described as barter, and the common bartering of a particular commodity (especially when the commodity items are not fungible) does not technically make that commodity "money" or a "commodity money" like the shekel – which was both a coin representing a specific weight of barley, and the weight of that sack of barley.[1]

Due to the complexities of ancient history (ancient civilizations developing at different paces and not keeping accurate records or having their records destroyed), and because the ancient origins of economic systems precede written history, it is impossible to trace the true origin of the invention of money and the transition from " barter systems" to the " monetary systems". Further, evidence in the histories[2] supports the idea that money has taken two main forms divided into the broad categories of money of account (debits and credits on ledgers) and money of exchange (tangible media of exchange made from wood, paper, bamboo, metal, etc.), and it is debated which was created first.

Regarding money of account, the tally stick can reasonably be described as a very primitive ledger – the oldest of which dates to the Aurignacian, about 30,000 years ago. While it may not be reasonable to conclude the most ancient tally sticks were used to keep accounting records in the monetary system sense of the term, their existence does show that "accounting" – keeping a written record of things counted – is far more ancient than many people assume. David Graeber proposes that money as a unit of account was invented when the unquantifiable obligation "I owe you one" transformed into the quantifiable notion of "I owe you one unit of something". In this view, money emerged first as credit and only later took the form of a medium of exchange.[3][4]

Regarding money of exchange, the use of representative money historically pre-dates the invention of coinage. In the ancient empires of Egypt, Babylon, India and China, the temples and palaces often had commodity warehouses which issued certificates of deposit as evidence of a claim upon a portion of the goods stored in the warehouses.[5] Because these "claim tickets" could be redeemed at the warehouse for the commodity they represented, they were able to be bartered in the markets as if they were the commodity.

While not the oldest form of money of exchange, various metals (both common and precious metals) were also used in both barter systems and monetary systems and the historical use of metals provides some of the clearest illustration of how the barter systems gave birth to monetary systems. The Romans' use of bronze, while not among the more ancient examples is well documented, and it illustrates this transition clearly. First, the "aes rude" (rough bronze) was used. This was a heavy weight of unmeasured bronze used in what was properly a barter system -- the barter-ability of the bronze was related exclusively to its usefulness in blacksmithing and it was bartered with the intent of being turned into tools. The next historical step was bronze in bars that had a 5-pound pre-measured weight (presumably to make barter easier and more fair), called "aes signatum" (signed bronze), which is where debate arises between if this is still the barter system or now a monetary system. Finally, there is a clear break from the use of bronze in barter into its undebatable use as money because of lighter measures of bronze not intended to be used as anything other than coinage for transactions. The aes grave (heavy bronze) (or As) is the start of the use of coins in Rome, but not the oldest known example metal coinage.

Prehistory: Predecessors of Money and its Emergence[edit]

Non-monetary exchange[edit]


In Politics Book 1:9[6] (c. 350 BCE) the Greek philosopher Aristotle contemplated the nature of money. He considered that every object has two uses: the original purpose for which the object was designed, and as an item to sell or barter.[7] The assignment of monetary value to an otherwise insignificant object such as a coin or promissory note arises as people acquired a psychological capacity to place trust in each other and in external authority within barter exchange.[8][9]

With barter, an individual possessing any surplus of value, such as a measure of grain or a quantity of livestock, could directly exchange it for something perceived to have similar or greater value or utility, such as a clay pot or a tool. The capacity to carry out barter transactions is limited in that it depends on a coincidence of wants. The seller of food grain has to find the buyer who wants to buy grain and who also could offer in return something the seller wants to buy. There is no agreed standard measure into which both seller and buyer could exchange commodities according to their relative value of all the various goods and services offered by other potential barter partners.

There is no evidence, historic or contemporary, of a society in which barter is the main mode of exchange.[10]


In his book Debt: The First 5,000 Years, anthropologist David Graeber argues against the suggestion that money was invented to replace barter. The problem with this version of history, he suggests, is the lack of any supporting evidence. His research indicates that "gift economies" were common, at least at the beginnings of the first agrarian societies, when humans used elaborate credit systems. Graeber proposes that money as a unit of account was invented the moment when the unquantifiable obligation "I owe you one" transformed into the quantifiable notion of "I owe you one unit of something". In this view, money emerged first as credit and only later acquired the functions of a medium of exchange and a store of value.[3][4]. Graeber's criticism partly relies on and follows that made by Michell A. Innes in his 1913 pamphlet "What is money?". Innes refutes the barter theory of money, by examining historic evidence and showing that early coins never were of consistent value nor of more or less consistent metal content. Therefore he concludes that sales is not exchange of goods for some universal commodity, but an exchange for credit. He argues that "credit and credit alone is money"[11]. Anthropologist Caroline Humphrey examines the available ethnographic data and concludes that "No example of a barter economy, pure and simple, has ever been described, let alone the emergence from it of money; all available ethnography suggests that there never has been such a thing"[12].

Gift economy[edit]

In a gift economy, valuable goods and services are regularly given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards (i.e. there is no formal quid pro quo).[13] Ideally, simultaneous or recurring giving serves to circulate and redistribute valuables within the community.

There are various social theories concerning gift economies. Some consider the gifts to be a form of reciprocal altruism. Another interpretation is that implicit "I owe you" debt[14] and social status are awarded in return for the "gifts".[15] Consider for example, the sharing of food in some hunter-gatherer societies, where food-sharing is a safeguard against the failure of any individual's daily foraging. This custom may reflect altruism, it may be a form of informal insurance, or may bring with it social status or other benefits.

Emergence of Money[edit]

After the domestication of cattle and the start of cultivation of crops in 9000–6000 BCE, livestock and plant products were used as money.[16]

In the earliest instances of trade with money, the things with the greatest utility and reliability in terms of re-use and re-trading (their marketability), determined the nature of the objects chosen to exchange. So as in agricultural societies, things needed for efficient and comfortable employment of energies for the production of cereals and the like were the easiest to transfer to monetary significance for direct exchange. As more of the basic conditions of human existence were met,[17] so the division of labour increased to create new activities for the use of time[clarification needed] to address more advanced concerns. As people's needs became more refined, indirect exchange became more likely, as the physical separation of skilled labourers (suppliers) from their prospective clients (demand) required the use of a medium common to all communities, to facilitate a wider market.[18][19]

Aristotle's opinion of the creation of money as a new thing in society is:[9]

When the inhabitants of one country became more dependent on those of another, and they imported what they needed, and exported what they had too much of, money necessarily came into use.[20]

Bronze Age: Commodity Money, Credit and Debt[edit]

Many cultures around the world developed the use of commodity money, that is, objects that have value in themselves as well as value in their use as money.[21] Ancient China, Africa, and India used cowry shells.
The Mesopotamian civilization developed a large-scale economy based on commodity money. The shekel was the unit of weight and currency, first recorded c. 3000 BCE, referring to a specific weight of barley, and equivalent amounts of silver, bronze, copper etc.[1] The Babylonians and their neighboring city states later developed the earliest system of economics as we think of it today, in terms of rules on debt,[14] legal contracts and law codes relating to business practices and private property. Money was not only an emergence[clarification needed], it was a necessity.[22][23]

The Code of Hammurabi, the best-preserved ancient law code, was created c. 1760 BCE (middle chronology) in ancient Babylon. It was enacted by the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi. Earlier collections of laws include the code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (c. 2050 BCE), the Code of Eshnunna (c. 1930 BCE) and the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (c. 1870 BCE).[2] These law codes formalized the role of money in civil society. They set amounts of interest on debt, fines for "wrongdoing", and compensation in money for various infractions of formalized law.

It has long been assumed that metals, where available, were favored for use as proto-money over such commodities as cattle, cowry shells, or salt, because metals are at once durable, portable, and easily divisible.[24] The use of gold as proto-money has been traced back to the fourth millennium BCE when the Egyptians used gold bars of a set weight as a medium of exchange,[citation needed] as had been done earlier in Mesopotamia with silver bars.[citation needed]

The first mention in the Bible of the use of money is in the Book of Genesis[25] in reference to criteria for the circumcision of a bought slave. Later, the Cave of Machpelah is purchased (with silver[26][27]) by Abraham, some time after 1985 BCE.[28][29][30][31] The currency was also in use amongst the Philistine people of the same period.[32]

1000 BCE – 400 CE[edit]
Standardized coinage[edit]

From about 1000 BCE, money in the form of small knives and spades made of bronze was in use in China during the Zhou dynasty, with cast bronze replicas of cowrie shells in use before this. The first manufactured coins seem to have appeared separately in India, China, and the cities around the Aegean Sea between 700 and 500 BCE.[33] While these Aegean coins were stamped (heated and hammered with insignia), the Indian coins (from the Ganges river valley) were punched metal disks, and Chinese coins (first developed in the Great Plain) were cast bronze with holes in the center to be strung together. The different forms and metallurgical processes imply a separate development.[34]

The first ruler in the Mediterranean known to have officially set standards of weight and money was Pheidon.[35] Minting occurred in the late 7th century BCE amongst the Greek cities of Asia Minor, spreading to the Greek islands of the Aegean and to the south of Italy by 500 BCE.[36] The first stamped money (having the mark of some authority in the form of a picture or words) can be seen in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is an electrum stater of a turtle coin, coined at Aegina island. This coin[37] dates to about 700 BCE.[38]

Other coins made of electrum (a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold) were manufactured on a larger scale about 650 BCE in Lydia (on the coast of what is now Turkey).[39] Similar coinage was adopted and manufactured to their own standards in nearby cities of Ionia, including Mytilene and Phokaia (using coins of electrum) and Aegina (using silver) during the 6th century BCE, and soon became adopted in mainland Greece, and the Persian Empire (after it incorporated Lydia in 547 BCE).

The use and export of silver coinage, along with soldiers paid in coins, contributed to the Athenian Empire's dominance of the region in the 5th century BCE. The silver used was mined in southern Attica at Laurium and Thorikos by a huge workforce of slave labour. A major silver vein discovery at Laurium in 483 BCE led to the huge expansion of the Athenian military fleet.

The worship of Moneta is recorded by Livy with the temple built in the time of Rome 413 (123)[clarification needed]; a temple consecrated to the same goddess was built in the earlier part of the 4th century (perhaps the same temple).[40][41][42] For four centuries the temple contained the mint of Rome.[43][36] The name of the goddess thus became the source of numerous words in English and the Romance languages, including the words "money" and "mint".


The discovery of the touchstone led the way to metal-based commodity money and coinage. Any soft metal can be tested for purity on a touchstone. Gold is a soft metal, which is also hard to come by, dense, and storable. As a result, monetary gold spread very quickly from Asia Minor, where it first gained wide usage, to the entire world.[dubious – discuss]

Using such a system still required several steps and mathematical calculation.[dubious – discuss] The touchstone allows one to estimate the amount of gold in an alloy, which is then multiplied by the weight to find the amount of gold alone in a lump. To make this process easier, the concept of standard coinage was introduced. Coins were pre-weighed and pre-alloyed, so as long as the user knew the origin of the coin, the touchstone was not required. Coins were typically minted by governments in a carefully protected process, and then stamped with an emblem that guaranteed the weight and value of the metal. It was, however, extremely common for governments to assert that the value of such money lay in its emblem and thus to subsequently to reduce the value of the currency by lowering the content of valuable metal.

General Notes[edit]
[This is not pre 400 AD]

Gold and silver have been the most common forms of money throughout history. In many languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian, the word for silver is still directly related to the word for money. Sometimes other metals were used. For instance, Ancient Sparta minted coins from iron to discourage its citizens from engaging in foreign trade.[44] In the early 17th century Sweden lacked precious metals, and so produced "plate money": large slabs of copper 50 cm or more in length and width, stamped with indications of their value.

Gold coins began to be minted again in Europe in the 13th century. Frederick II is credited with having reintroduced gold coins during the Crusades. During the 14th century Europe changed from use of silver in currency to minting of gold.[45][46] Vienna made this change in 1328.[45]

Metal-based coins had the advantage of carrying their value within the coins themselves – on the other hand, they induced manipulations, such as the clipping of coins to remove some of the precious metal. A greater problem was the simultaneous co-existence of gold, silver and copper coins in Europe. The exchange rates between the metals varied with supply and demand. For instance the gold guinea coin began to rise against the silver crown in England in the 1670s and 1680s. Consequently, silver was exported from England in exchange for gold imports. The effect was worsened with Asian traders not sharing the European appreciation of gold altogether — gold left Asia and silver left Europe in quantities European observers like Isaac Newton, Master of the Royal Mint observed with unease.[47]

Stability came when national banks guaranteed to change silver money into gold at a fixed rate; it did, however, not come easily. The Bank of England risked a national financial catastrophe in the 1730s when customers demanded their money be changed into gold in a moment of crisis. Eventually London's merchants saved the bank and the nation with financial guarantees.[citation needed]

Another step in the evolution of money was the change from a coin being a unit of weight to being a unit of value. A distinction could be made between its commodity value and its specie value. The difference in these values is seigniorage.[48][citation needed]


Paper money was introduced in Song Dynasty China during the 11th century.[49] The development of the banknote began in the seventh century, with local issues of paper currency. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions.[50][51][52] The issue of credit notes is often for a limited duration, and at some discount to the promised amount later. The jiaozi nevertheless did not replace coins during the Song Dynasty; paper money was used alongside the coins. The central government soon observed the economic advantages of printing paper money, issuing a monopoly right of several of the deposit shops to the issuance of these certificates of deposit.[53] By the early 12th century, the amount of banknotes issued in a single year amounted to an annual rate of 26 million strings of cash coins.[54]

In the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travelers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck.[55] Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."[56] In medieval Italy and Flanders, because of the insecurity and impracticality of transporting large sums of money over long distances, money traders started using promissory notes. In the beginning these were personally registered, but they soon became a written order to pay the amount to whoever had it in their possession.[57] These notes can be seen as a predecessor to regular banknotes.[58]

Trade Bills of Exchange[edit]

Bills of exchange became prevalent with the expansion of European trade toward the end of the Middle Ages. A flourishing Italian wholesale trade in cloth, woolen clothing, wine, tin and other commodities was heavily dependent on credit for its rapid expansion. Goods were supplied to a buyer against a bill of exchange, which constituted the buyer's promise to make payment at some specified future date. Provided that the buyer was reputable or the bill was endorsed by a credible guarantor, the seller could then present the bill to a merchant banker and redeem it in money at a discounted value before it actually became due. The main purpose of these bills nevertheless was, that traveling with cash was particularly dangerous at the time. A deposit could be made with a banker in one town, in turn a bill of exchange was handed out, that could be redeemed in another town.

These bills could also be used as a form of payment by the seller to make additional purchases from his own suppliers. Thus, the bills – an early form of credit – became both a medium of exchange and a medium for storage of value. Like the loans made by the Egyptian grain banks, this trade credit became a significant source for the creation of new money. In England, bills of exchange became an important form of credit and money during last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th century before banknotes, checks and cash credit lines were widely available.[59]


The acceptance of symbolic forms of money meant that a symbol could be used to represent something of value that was available in physical storage somewhere else in space, such as grain in the warehouse; or something of value that would be available later, such as a promissory note or bill of exchange, a document ordering someone to pay a certain sum of money to another on a specific date or when certain conditions have been fulfilled.

In the 12th century, the English monarchy introduced an early version of the bill of exchange in the form of a notched piece of wood known as a tally stick. Tallies originally came into use at a time when paper was rare and costly, but their use persisted until the early 19th century, even after paper money had become prevalent. The notches denoted various amounts of taxes payable to the Crown. Initially tallies were simply a form of receipt to the taxpayer at the time of rendering his dues. As the revenue department became more efficient, they began issuing tallies to denote a promise of the tax assessee to make future tax payments at specified times during the year. Each tally consisted of a matching pair – one stick was given to the assessee at the time of assessment representing the amount of taxes to be paid later, and the other held by the Treasury representing the amount of taxes to be collected at a future date.

The Treasury discovered that these tallies could also be used to create money. When the Crown had exhausted its current resources, it could use the tally receipts representing future tax payments due to the Crown as a form of payment to its own creditors, who in turn could either collect the tax revenue directly from those assessed or use the same tally to pay their own taxes to the government. The tallies could also be sold to other parties in exchange for gold or silver coin at a discount reflecting the length of time remaining until the tax was due for payment. Thus, the tallies became an accepted medium of exchange for some types of transactions and an accepted store of value. Like the girobanks before it, the Treasury soon realized that it could also issue tallies that were not backed by any specific assessment of taxes. By doing so, the Treasury created new money that was backed by public trust and confidence in the monarchy rather than by specific revenue receipts.[60]

Goldsmith Bankers[edit]

Goldsmiths in England had been craftsmen, bullion merchants, money changers, and money lenders since the 16th century. But they were not the first to act as financial intermediates; in the early 17th century, the scriveners were the first to keep deposits for the express purpose of relending them.[61] Merchants and traders had amassed huge hoards of gold and entrusted their wealth to the Royal Mint for storage. In 1640 King Charles I seized the private gold stored in the mint as a forced loan (which was to be paid back over time). Thereafter merchants preferred to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, and charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee (i.e., in trust). These receipts could not be assigned (only the original depositor could collect the stored goods). Gradually the goldsmiths took over the function of the scriveners of relending on behalf of a depositor and also developed modern banking practices; promissory notes were issued for money deposited which by custom and/or law was a loan to the goldsmith,[62] i.e., the depositor expressly allowed the goldsmith to use the money for any purpose including advances to his customers. The goldsmith charged no fee, or even paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, and the advances (loans) to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking. The promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument, which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay.[63] Hence goldsmiths could advance loans in the form of gold money, or in the form of promissory notes, or in the form of checking accounts.[64] Gold deposits were relatively stable, often remaining with the goldsmith for years on end, so there was little risk of default so long as public trust in the goldsmith's integrity and financial soundness was maintained. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of British banking and prominent creators of new money based on credit.

Demand Deposits[edit]

Demand deposits are funds that are deposited in bank accounts and are available for withdrawal at the discretion of the depositor. The withdrawal of funds from the account does not require contacting or making any type of prior arrangements with the bank or credit union. As long as the account balance is sufficient to cover the amount of the withdrawal, and the withdrawal takes place in accordance with procedures set in place by the financial institution, the funds may be withdrawn on demand.


The first European banknotes were issued by Stockholms Banco, a predecessor of the Bank of Sweden, in 1661.[65] These replaced the copper-plates being used instead as a means of payment,[66] although in 1664 the bank ran out of coins to redeem notes and ceased operating in the same year.

Inspired by the success of the London goldsmiths, some of whom became the forerunners of great English banks, banks began issuing paper notes quite properly termed "banknotes", which circulated in the same way that government-issued currency circulates today. In England this practice continued up to 1694. Scottish banks continued issuing notes until 1850, and still do issue banknotes backed by Bank of England notes. In the United States, this practice continued through the 19th century; at one time there were more than 5,000 different types of banknotes issued by various commercial banks in America. Only the notes issued by the largest, most creditworthy banks were widely accepted. The scrip of smaller, lesser-known institutions circulated locally. Farther from home it was only accepted at a discounted rate, if at all. The proliferation of types of money went hand in hand with a multiplication in the number of financial institutions.

These banknotes were a form of representative money which could be converted into gold or silver by application at the bank. Since banks issued notes far in excess of the gold and silver they kept on deposit, sudden loss of public confidence in a bank could precipitate mass redemption of banknotes and result in bankruptcy.

The use of banknotes issued by private commercial banks as legal tender has gradually been replaced by the issuance of bank notes authorized and controlled by national governments. The Bank of England was granted sole rights to issue banknotes in England after 1694. In the United States, the Federal Reserve Bank was granted similar rights after its establishment in 1913. Until recently, these government-authorized currencies were forms of representative money, since they were partially backed by gold or silver and were theoretically convertible into gold or silver.

After 2008[edit]


The latest development in money uses cryptography to seek to ensure trust and fungibility in a theoretically tamper-proof distributed ledger called a blockchain. While several digital currency systems where proposed since the 1980s,[67] the first successful decentralized peer-to-peer cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was proposed in 2008 by an unknown author or authors under the pseudonym of Satoshi Nakamoto.[68][69] The protocol proposed by Nakamoto solved what is known as the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted third-party.

Since bitcoin's inception, thousands of other cryptocurrencies have been introduced,[70][71] many of which use the symbology of former metallic currencies, such as silver for Litecoin.

Different Types of Money[edit]

In modern times the broader concept of "money" includes other more complicated forms of both "money of account" and "money of exchange". The different types of money are typically classified as "M"s. The "M"s usually range from M0 (narrowest) to M3 (broadest) but which "M"s are actually focused on in policy formulation depends on the country's central bank:

M0: In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, M0 includes bank reserves, so M0 is referred to as the monetary base, or narrow money.[72]

MB: is referred to as the monetary base or total currency. This is the base from which other forms of money (like checking deposits, listed below) are created and is traditionally the most liquid measure of the money supply.[73]

M1: Bank reserves are not included in M1.

M2: Represents M1 and "close substitutes" for M1.[74] M2 is a broader classification of money than M1. M2 is a key economic indicator used to forecast inflation.[75]

M3: M2 plus large and long-term deposits. Since 2006, M3 is no longer published by the U.S. central bank.[76] However, there are still estimates produced by various private institutions.

MZM: Money with zero maturity. It measures the supply of financial assets redeemable at par on demand. Velocity of MZM is historically a relatively accurate predictor of inflation.[77][78][79]

Please see Wikipedia site for more info such as images, references, bibliographies...


Money sure seems to have a stranglehold on economics and ergonomics. The American dream at what price?

Indeed, what are we to do? What can any individual do in the interest of human integrity?

Can little things make a difference, nudge us toward a healthier state of being in the long run? Is there hope for humanity in the long run?

Consider the following entries...


Life Over Money?! Greed (Social Experiment) - Homeless man vs Rich Man

Joey Salads
Published on Sep 10, 2015

Category : Entertainment
License : Standard YouTube License


c | Adam Carroll | TEDxLondonBusinessSchool

TEDx Talks
Published on Jul 9, 2015

Adam Carroll talks about his $10,000 Monopoly game with his kids and how to teach finance management in a cashless society.

Adam Carroll is quickly being recognized as one of the top transformational trainers in the country. Having presented at over 500 colleges and Universities nationwide, hundreds of leadership symposiums, and countless local and regional organizations, Adam Carroll’s message of Building A Bigger Life, Not a Bigger Lifestyle has been heard by over 200,000+ people.

In early 2014, Adam successfully crowd-funded a documentary on student loan debt, raising nearly $70,000 in 45 days. The film, Broke Busted & Disgusted is due out in early 2015 and is already garnering critical acclaim. The mission of the film is to start a national debate about changing the way we fund college and not crippling 20 somethings with mountains of debt.

Adam’s core message is we are all after the same thing – to relentlessly pursue our passions, live simply and happily, and make a difference to those around us.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Category: Nonprofits & Activism
License : Standard YouTube License


Money Quotes:
Courtesy of:

Nowadays nothing but money counts: a fortune brings honors, friendships; the poor man everywhere lies low.

Work like you don't need the money. Love like you've never been hurt. Dance like nobody's watching.
Satchel Paige

Giving money and power to government is like giving whiskey and car keys to teenage boys.
P. J. O'Rourke

Encouragement to others is something everyone can give. Somebody needs what you have to give. It may not be your money; it may be your time. It may be your listening ear. It may be your arms to encourage. It may be your smile to uplift. Who knows?
Joel Osteen

Money doesn't mean anything to me. I've made a lot of money, but I want to enjoy life and not stress myself building my bank account. I give lots away and live simply, mostly out of a suitcase in hotels. We all know that good health is much more important.
Keanu Reeves

Innovation has nothing to do with how many R & D dollars you have. When Apple came up with the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R & D. It's not about money. It's about the people you have, how you're led, and how much you get it.
Steve Jobs

An athlete cannot run with money in his pockets. He must run with hope in his heart and dreams in his head.
Emil Zatopek

The only way to get love is to be lovable. It's very irritating if you have a lot of money. You'd like to think you could write a check: 'I'll buy a million dollars' worth of love.' But it doesn't work that way. The more you give love away, the more you get.
Warren Buffett

If my fans want to do something for me when that time comes, I say, don't waste your money on me. Help the homeless. Help the needy... people who don't have no food... Instead of some big funeral, where they come from here and there and all over. Save it.
B. B. King

If we pollute the air, water and soil that keep us alive and well, and destroy the biodiversity that allows natural systems to function, no amount of money will save us.
David Suzuki


Money Humour:

NOT having enough money to pay your bills is no laughing matter. Yet laughter is one of the best ways to release tension, forget worries, and take a break from it all.

The Terrifying Cost of "Free” Websites

Published on Dec 7, 2016

Category: Comedy
License : Standard YouTube License


Published on Apr 20, 2017

Category: Comedy
License : Standard YouTube License

The Shocking Way Private Prisons Make Money

Published on Nov 23, 2016

Category: Comedy
License : Standard YouTube License


Comedian fk / Comedy
Published on Jul 11, 2017

Category: Comedy
License : Standard YouTube License


Thematic Music:

Donald Trump entrance theme - Money, Money, Money

Published on Apr 7, 2013

Category : Music
License : Standard YouTube License

NOTE: By embedding YouTube videos on our site, UFF agrees to YouTube API Terms of Service.

For the love of money - O' jays Full Version

I am Max
Published on Jul 13, 2009

Edit: The bottom bar is as a result of a re-upload on Youtube's part. The video was originally uploaded in 2009 and had since been taken down. In the second quarter of 2014 it was put back up and thus the bottom bar exists.

All visual credits go to Google images and Istockphoto.
Audio clip credits goes to the O'jays and Sony music entertainment
This video is purely fan made.

Album : The O'Jays - The Very Best Of
Licensed by : SME (on behalf of Legacy Recordings); SOLAR Music Rights Management, CMRRA, PEDL, MijacCatalog, Warner Chappell, Sony ATV Publishing, UBEM, and 5 Music Rights Societies

Category : Entertainment
License : Standard YouTube License

Pink Floyd - Money (Official Music Video)

Pink Floyd
Published on Jun 25, 2014

Category : Music
License : Standard YouTube License

The Beaches - Money

Published on Aug 14, 2017

Made possible with the support of the Ontario Media Development Corporation.

Music video by The Beaches performing Money. (C) 2017 Universal Music Canada Inc.

Category : Music
License : Standard YouTube License

Flying Lizzards - Money Thats What I Want 1979

Published on Aug 5, 2009

Category: Music
License : Standard YouTube License
Song: Money
Artist: The Flying Lizards
Album: The Flying Lizards
Writers: Janie Bradford, Berry Gordy
Licensed to YouTube by: UMG (on behalf of Zonophone); CMRRA, Imagem Music (publishing) US, EMI Music Publishing, SOLAR Music Rights Management, UBEM, and 4 Music Rights Societies

The Notorious B.I.G. - "Mo Money Mo Problems"

The Notorious B.I.G.
Published on Sep 6, 2011

Category: Music
License : Standard YouTube License
Song: Mo Money Mo Problems (feat. Mase & Puff Daddy) [2014 Remastered
Artist: The Notorious B.I.G.
Album: Life After Death (Remastered Edition) [Amended]
Licensed by: WMG (on behalf of Rhino Atlantic); CMRRA, Sony ATV Publishing, SOLAR Music Rights Management, Warner Chappell, ASCAP, UBEM, EMI Music Publishing, PEDL, and 14 Music Rights Societies

O Brother, Where Art Thou? - Constant Sorrow [HD]

Published on Mar 14, 2016

Category: Film & Animation
Movie: O Brother, Where Art Thou?

Sam Cooke A Change Is Gonna Come 1964 HD Max 720p

Starte Christ
Published on Aug 23, 2017

Category: Music
License : Standard YouTube License
Artist & Writer: Sam Cooke

Licensed by : UMG (on behalf of ABKCO Music and Records, Inc.); Warner Chappell, SOLAR Music Rights Management, EMI Music Publishing, UBEM, ABKCO Music, Inc., and 15 Music Rights Societies

METRIC - Breathing Underwater [Official Video]

Published on Nov 14, 2012

Category: Music
License : Standard YouTube License
Album: Synthetica (Deluxe)
Licensed by: Believe Music, UMG, ONErpm, Live Nation Video Network (on behalf of LAB 344); CMRRA, ARESA, ASCAP, BMG Rights Management, and 12 Music Rights Societies

Arkells - People's Champ

Arkells Music
Published on May 23, 2018

Arkells - People's Champ. © 2018 Arkells Music (2017) Inc.

Category: Music
License : Standard YouTube License
Artist : Arkells
Album : People's Champ
Licensed by : UMG, Koch Entertainment (on behalf of Last Gang)


Kids decide between helping the Homeless or Ice Cream

Meir Kay
Published on May 27, 2015

We gave 4 - 6 year old's a dollar and observed how they went about spending it.

Category : Entertainment
License : Standard YouTube License

What more do we need to know?

How about we all get together in the middle?

Calling on all American and other Earthly lovers of what is just and fair when it comes to money and all other
economic expressions, including love and compassion!

After all is said and done, can we afford to neglect the emotional needs of one and all?

America - Sister Golden Hair (HQ Original)

UFF Question:

Women, are you out there?

Can we save ourselves from the seemingly inevitable folly of male chauvinistic dropped on their heads BS remnants of the past, trillion dollar corporate rip off investments in paranoidal, delusional, hippocratic oath notwithstanding?

Published on Apr 18, 2011

America's 1975 hit "Sister Golden Hair", enjoy.

Category : Music
Song: Sister Golden Hair
Artist: America
Album: Hearts (US Internet Release)
Licensed to YouTube by: WMG (on behalf of Rhino Warner); Warner Chappell, PEDL, UBEM, CMRRA, ASCAP, and 7 Music Rights Societies

Pink Floyd - Shine On You Crazy Diamond I-IX

Published on Aug 1, 2016

A fantastic journey through Scotland...
pictures and videos taken from my journeys to Scotland between 2011-2016.

Category: Music


Published on May 15, 2015

Music Video: The Thrill Is Gone - B.B. King 1969 (Single, Album: Completely Well)
The Thrill Is Gone - B.B. King & Eric Clapton 2010
"Crossroads Guitar Festival' Live Concert at Toyota Park in Bridgeview, Chicago 2010 USA
Blues Song Written by Roy Hawkins and Rick Darnell in 1951 (West Coast Blues Musician)

Category: Music

So what are we here for beyond thills?

Figure it out people before it's too late!

Better still, let's figure it out together, as in -

The thrill of life evolves!

Ain't it good to be alive?

Edwin - Alive

Published on Sep 7, 2006

Music video for 'Alive'.

Category: Music


DISCLAIMER: UFF does not own any of the above works, nor do we claim responsibility or ownership for any images or audio tracks shown in these and other videos UFF has posted. All rights go to their respective owners.


UFF Commentary Notes are the sole responsibility of the President of UFF.

See post of November 29, 2017 for full transparency details.


Experiencial ergonomics. Discuss.


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